Two Japanese and one Japanese-American scientists have won this year's Nobel Prize in Physics.Congratulations!
Toshihide Masukawa of Kyoto University and Makoto Kobayashi of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization shared the Prize with Yoichiro Nambu of the University of Chicago.
They have contributed to the advancement of particle physics with their work. It is the first time in 6 years for Japanese scientists to win the prize.
87-year-old Nambu graduated from Tokyo University. After teaching at Osaka City University, he went to the United States to continue his research and became a professor at the University of Chicago in 1958.
Nambu became an American citizen in 1970. He predicted a mechanism called spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics that permeated the standard elementary particle physics.
Nambu won the Oppenheimer Prize in 1976 and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in 2005.
Masukawa was born in Nagoya in 1940. He served as a professor of Physics and the director of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics at Kyoto University and is now a professor emeritus of the university.
Kobayashi was also born in Nagoya, in 1944. He was the president of the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. He became professor emeritus 2 years ago and holds a post of executive director of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
The two began their research of elementary particles when they were students at Nagoya University.
In 1973 when they were both assistant researchers at Kyoto University, they proposed a theory to explain the existence of 6 types of quarks.
They explained that their 6-quarks theory can provide proof of the proposed disappearance of half of the matter in existence right after the universe was created about 13 billion 700 million years ago.
The 3 unknown families of quarks were actually discovered later, verifying the scientists' predictions.